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    《晚清七十年》太平天國運動造成的死亡人數權威數據

    類別:歷史戰爭 | 來自:未知 | 發布時間:2018-04-28 | 人氣值:
      有一本書叫做《晚清七十年》,其中太平天國部分的開頭有一段話很醒目,也很沉痛。書中說:“時至晚清,改朝換代的周期已屆,政府的統治大機器徹底銹爛,社會也百病叢生。廣東洪秀全,一個典型“三家村”土塾師,科場失意,轉以‘拜上帝會’之名,于廣西聚眾起事,企圖建立一個夢想中的‘小天堂’。一群狂熱信徒被逼上梁山,化宗教信仰為政治力量,終至釀成死人無數的‘太平天國’大悲劇。”書中用“死人無數”來形容這場大悲劇,但沒有說究竟死了多少人。
      蘇南地區,往往二三十里,不見居民,有的地方人口僅存五分之一。  
      浙江省,一片劫灰,道殣相望,昔日溫飽之家,大半成為餓殍。  
      安徽省,皖南“野無耕種,村無炊煙,市人肉以相食”;皖北“但有黃篙白骨,并無居民市鎮,竟日不見一人”。  
      江西省,數百里“不聞雞犬聲,惟見餓民僵斃于道”。 
      在這場大悲劇中,究竟死了多少人,至今仍是個謎。1883年,一個美國傳教士稱:太平天國戰爭造成中國人口的損失為5000萬。而當時的美國駐華公使柔克義則估計太平天國戰爭導致的人口死亡數為2000萬。這是當時在中國的外國人所作的估算,沒有多少事實依據。中國當代人口史學者在確鑿的史料基礎上,對此進行了重新估算,形成了兩種意見:第一種意見根據太平天國前后《戶部清冊》所載的戶口數,認為從1851年到1864年中國人口銳減40%,絕對損失數量達1.6億;第二種意見則將戰前的人口數據與1911年宣統人口普查資料進行對比研究,認為太平天國戰爭僅給江蘇、安徽、浙江、江西、湖北五省直接造成的過量死亡人口就至少達到5400萬,如果再考慮到其它戰場湖南、廣西、福建、四川等省的人口損失,那么太平天國戰爭給中國帶來的人口損失至少在1億以上,直接造成的過量死亡人口達7000萬。 
      不管以上哪種估算成立,太平天國戰爭都不僅僅是中國歷史上空前的浩劫,而且也是全人類歷史上最殘酷的戰爭,因為第二次世界大戰也僅造成了5000萬的過量死亡。
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