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    環保意識古人也有

    類別:傳統常識 | 來自:網絡整理 | 發布時間:2018-09-24 | 人氣值:

      每當讀到古人所描繪的“日出江花紅勝火,春來江水綠如藍”,總是心生向往。古代有這般的美景,那他們是如何保護環境的呢?“環境保護”一詞雖起源于近代,但早在四千多年前,中國古代的人們就有了保護環境的意識。夏朝時有“禹之禁”,類似于現在的保護自然資源的法規。“禹之禁,春三日山林不登斧斤,以成草木之長;入夏三日,川澤不施網罟,以成魚鱉之長;不鄜不卵,以成鳥獸之長。”這可能是中國最早的關于環保的法規了。而笱子在談到生物與環境之間的依存關系時說:“樹成蔭而眾鳥息焉,醯酸而蚋聚焉。川淵深而魚鱉歸之,山林茂而禽獸歸之。川淵枯則龍魚去之,山林險則鳥獸去之。”《淮南子》有言:“欲致魚者先通水,欲致鳥者先樹之。水積則魚聚,本茂則鳥集。”想要獲得更多更好的自然資源,人類確實首先要做的是優化環境。在中國的漢唐時期,官員的政績是跟百姓種了多少樹有一定關系的。

      

      漢朝統治者塒環境的保護比前幾個朝代更為重視。西漢文帝曾下詔勸民種樹,景帝也曾下詔“功農墾,益種樹”。保護環境資源慢慢由被動變成了主動,綠化面積的多寡開始成為對當時官員考核的標準之一。

      

      漢宣帝時,龔遂任渤海郡守,當時渤海郡(今河北、遼寧的渤海灣一帶)發生饑荒,盜賊并起,難以鎮壓,龔遂到任后,下了一道文書:“持農器者為良民,持兵器者乃為賊。”

      

      同時龔遂以身作則,節儉辦事,鼓勵百姓墾田種桑,規定農家每人每年種榆樹一棵等。安撫百姓,與民休息,對那些依然不肯放下兵器的人,龔遂則勸喻他們賣劍買牛,賣刀買犢。經過幾年的治理后,渤海一帶社會安定,百姓安居樂業,龔遂深得民心,同時也受到皇帝的嘉贊。

      

      后來,每人每年種一棵榆樹,不僅成了渤海郡內的傳統,還作為一項政策被推廣到其他地區,屬民種樹的多少、轄區內植樹綠化的面積的多寡與地方官的政績有了瓜葛。更有趣的是,種植樹木,還被一些地方官員作為懲制手段,用來處罰一些犯了小過失的屬民。漢朝在保護環境資源的立法上也有了一定進展。

      

      到唐代,田地荒蕪無人耕種的話,官員是會受到荊條抽打的。據唐律規定,如果官員屬地內的田地荒蕪,畝數達到管轄總數十分之一的話,管轄該地區的官員要與領取了土地的戶主一同被罰,官員得被笞(用荊條抽打臀部)30下,而且刑罰隨著田地荒蕪的程度而加重,每多荒蕪一分就加重一等刑罰,最高刑罰是為徒一年。

      

      唐朝對盜耕耕田也有處罰,對盜耕的是荒田的,則可以減輕一等處罰。另外盜耕種植的莊稼、秧苗,還要歸還地主。

      

      此外,唐律還規定,以均田制分得的土地,每畝至少要種50棵桑樹、10棵榆樹和10棵棗樹。若土質不適宜種這3種樹的,可改種其他樹種,但一樣必須在分到土地后的3年內完成,地方官要對百姓的種植情況加以督促和統計。如果存規定年限內沒種到那么多棵樹的,地方官員將要被笞40下。

      

      而且,庸代還把山林川澤、苑圃、打獵作為政府管理的范圍,把城市綠化、郊祠神壇、五岳名山納入政府管理的職責范疇。

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